Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Selected Paint Brands and Paint Chips from Old Buildings in Selected Local Government Areas in Lagos State, Nigeria

Afolayan GO(1), Amagon KI(2), Amah LE(3), Obadipe TO(4),


(1) Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
(2) Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.
(3) Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
(4) Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.
Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: One major deleterious component of paints are heavy metals and it has been reported that the general populace (especially children) can be exposed to the components of paints through the chipping of paints from buildings and runoffs of rain from painted buildings to other bodies of water.

Objectives: To assess the awareness of painters and paint sellers on the heavy metal constituents of paints and their adverse effects. The study also, to evaluated the heavy metal constituents of commonly sold paints and paint chips of old buildings in selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Lagos State, Nigeria.

Methods: A self-administered well-structured questionnaire was distributed to fifty painters and fifty paint sellers to evaluate the occupational awareness on the use of personal protective devices, commonly experienced adverse symptoms, and also to know the commonly used and sold paints in Lagos, Nigeria. The heavy metal constituents were evaluated in ten paint brands (gloss and emulsion), and in 180 paint chip samples scraped off buildings located in selected LGAs in Lagos State, using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.

Results: The results showed that 54% were aware of the hazards associated with their jobs, however, 72% do not use protective gears, and 32% reported symptoms relating to hazard exposure to paints. The levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in paint brands and chips were below the permissible limits of 90 ppm of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and 100 ppm limit of the European Union (EU) for Pb and Cd in paint. However, the levels of chromium were higher than recommended.

Conclusion: There is a need for proper monitoring of heavy metal (especially chromium) concentration in paints manufactured and sold in Lagos and Nigeria as whole, while also ensuring that painters adhere to best protective practices.
Keywords: Heavy metals, Paint, Painters, Permissible levels, Old buildings, Lagos.


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