Genotoxic Effect of Herbal Mixture of Phyllantus amarus, Xylopica aethiopica and Sida cordifolia
(1) Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria.
(2) Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Nigeria.
(3) Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Nigeria.
(4) Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos
Background: The herbal mixture of Phyllantus amarus, Xylopica aethiopica and Sida cordifolia is commonly used as a decoction for blood tonic. Genotoxicity has been shown in the individual plants. However, the genotoxic effect of this herbal mixture has rarely been investigated.
Objective: To evaluate the genotoxic effect of herbal mixture of Phyllantus amarus, Xylopica aethiopica and Sida cordifolia
using multiple genetic assay systems.
Materials and Methods: Root tips of Allium cepa were treated with various concentrations of the herbal mixture (31.5, 63, 94.5 and 126mg/L) and distilled water respectively for 48 h. The root tips of A. cepa were then subjected to cytological examination using Jette Rank method.
Results: Root lengths of actively growing A. cepa grown in the various concentrations of the herbal mixture decreased with
increasing concentration of the herbal mixture over the experimental period.The treated roots showed various morphological
abnormalities compared to the control roots grown in distilled water which showed no abnormal morphology. The herbal mixture induced various types of chromosomal and mitotic abnormalities which include binucleated cells, C-anaphase, sticky chromosomes and telophase bridges. Stickiness, vagrants and binucleated cells were the commonest of all observed aberrations as they were found at almost all concentrations of the polyherbal preparation. Frequency of aberration was found to increase with increasing herbal mixture concentration. Mitotic index decreased while mitodepression increased with increase in herbal mixture concentration. Likewise, the control had a mitotic index of 8.60%. The highest mitotic index of the mixture treated root was observed at 31.5mg/L (7.30%) and the lowest was observed at126mg/L (3.56%).
Conclusion: The result suggests that the herbal mixture of Phyllantus amarus, Xylopica aethiopica and Sida cordifoliamay
have genotoxic effect.
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