Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Zingiber officinale, Allium sativum, and Slime of Archachatina marginata on Cardiovascular and Renal Functions in Female Salt-induced Hypertensive Rats

Arikawe AP(1), Anigbogu CN(2), Akinnibosun OA(3), Agbaraolorunpo FM(4), Olusanya AW(5), Abass-Olisa TO(6), Asifat KO(7), David G(8),


(1) Department of Physiology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, Lagos, Nigeria
(2) Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, Lagos, Nigeria
(3) Department of Physiology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, Lagos, Nigeria
(4) Department of Physiology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, Lagos, Nigeria
(5) Department of Physiology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, Lagos, Nigeria
(6) Department of Physiology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, Lagos, Nigeria
(7) Department of Physiology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, Lagos, Nigeria
(8) Department of Physiology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, Lagos, Nigeria
Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: The recourse to traditional herbal and folk medicines in the treatment and management of various ailments, including hypertension, is on the increase especially in the developing world.

Objective: This study assessed the benefits of ginger (Zingiber officinale)/garlic (Allium sativum) extracts and snail (Archachatina marginata) slime on cardiovascular and renal parameters in high salt diet hypertensive female rats.

Method: Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 8 groups; control (rat chow for 14 weeks); salt (high salt diet, 8% NaCl for 14 weeks); control + garlic (as control, received garlic extract 1 ml/100 g body weight (BW) daily from 10th to 14th week); salt + garlic (as salt, received garlic extract as control + garlic); control + ginger (as control, received ginger extract 1 ml/ 100 g BW daily from 10th to 14th week); salt + ginger (as salt, received ginger extract as control + ginger); control + slime (as control, received snail slime 300 mg/kg orally from 10th to 14th week); and salt + slime (as salt, received snail slime as control + slime). This was followed by invasive blood pressure (BP) parameters measurement using the Powerlab instrument and plasma samples were taken for electrolytes, urea and creatinine measurements.

Results: BP parameters were significantly higher (p<0.05) in salt and salt + garlic compared with control groups. Salt +ginger and salt + slime groups had significantly lower (p<0.05) BP parameters compared with salt groups. Plasma chloride was significantly lower (p<0.05) in salt + ginger compared with control, salt and control + ginger groups. Creatinine was significantly lower (p<0.05) in salt compared with control, salt + garlic, salt + ginger and salt + slime groups. On the other hand, urea was significantly higher (p<0.05) in salt compared with salt + ginger and salt + slime groups. Also, water intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in salt, salt + garlic, salt + ginger and salt + slime groups compared with control groups.

 

Conclusion: Ginger and garlic aqueous extracts alongside snail slime significantly decreased blood pressure parameters and this reduction could not be directly linked to the effects of these extracts on renal function in female hypertensive state.


Keywords


Ginger, garlic, snail slime, high salt diet, hypertension.

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