Effects of Contraceptive Agents on Lipid Profile of Nigerian Women in Lagos Metropolis

Samuel TA(1), Akinwande AI(2), Magbagbeola OA(3),


(1) Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine of the University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria.
(2) Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine of the University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria.
(3) Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine of the University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria.
Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: Ethinyl estradiol and progestin in form of oral, implants and injectable contraceptive formulations can induce changes in lipid metabolism. These alterations in users may be fraught with coronary heart disease risk. Thus, there is need to conduct a scientific research into the possible changes in lipid metabolism associated with the use of modern contraceptives by Nigerian women.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of contraceptive agents on lipid profile of Nigerian women in Lagos metropolis.

Methods: The levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) were determined using their respective standard diagnostic kits (Randox kits) while low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) was determined using the Friedewald formula. These lipid parameters were measured at 0th, 6th and 12th months in a total of 400 female volunteers from five study sites in Lagos who were grouped as non-contraceptive users (controls) (n=50), contraceptive implant (norplant) (n=50), copper IUD (cu-IUD) (n=100), contraceptive injectable (DMPA) (n=100) and contraceptive pill (OC) (n=100). Results: The findings from the study showed significantly (pÂ0.05) increased levels of serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride in subjects with norplant, DMPA and OC respectively when compared with noncontraceptive users. Surprisingly, a significant (pÂ0.05) decrease in HDL-c was observed in non-contraceptive subjects when compared with contraceptive users.

Conclusion: Use of hormonal contraceptives is associated with dyslipidemia which predisposes to increased cardiovascular risk.


Keywords


Contraceptive agents, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk, progestin, Nigeria

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